Order zithromax z pak

About This TrackerThis tracker provides order zithromax z pak the number of confirmed cases and deaths from novel antibiotics by country, the trend in confirmed case and death counts by country, and a global map showing which zithromax for sore throat countries have confirmed cases and deaths. The data are drawn from the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) antibiotics Resource Center’s buy antibiotics Map and the World Health Organization’s (WHO) antibiotics Disease (buy antibiotics-2019) situation reports.This tracker will be updated regularly, as new data are released.Related Content. About buy antibiotics antibioticsIn late 2019, a new antibiotics order zithromax z pak emerged in central China to cause disease in humans. Cases of this disease, known as buy antibiotics, have since been reported across around the globe.

On January order zithromax z pak 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the zithromax represents a public health emergency of international concern, and on January 31, 2020, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services declared it to be a health emergency for the United States.Global Health Legislation During the 117th Congress(as of Aug. 2, 2021)TitleDate IntroducedBill #SponsorStatusTopicSummary of Global Health-Related ProvisionsAbortion is Health Care Everywhere Act of 2021To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to authorize the use of funds for comprehensive reproductive health care services, and for other purposes.3/9/2021H.R. 1670Rep.

Janice Schakowsky (D-IL-9)Referred to HFACAbortion, Helms amendmentIncludes statement of U.S. Policy regarding safe abortion and working to end unsafe abortion. Repeals the Helms Amendment (which prohibits the use of foreign assistance to pay for the performance of abortion as a method of family planning or to motivate or coerce any person to practice abortion). States that notwithstanding any other provision of law, certain funds may be used to provide comprehensive reproductive health care services, including abortion services, training, and equipment.Advancing Emergency Preparedness Through One Health Act of 2021To establish an interagency One Health Program, and for other purposes.3/18/2021S.

861Sen. Tina Smith (D-MN)Read twice and referred to S. HELPOne Health, global health securityRequires the heads of HHS, USDA, USAID, DoD, and certain other agencies to develop, publish, and submit to Congress a national One Health Framework for coordinated federal activities under the One Health Program not later than one year after enactment. Among other things, states the framework must describe existing efforts and contain recommendations for building upon and complementing the activities of the CDC, the FDA, USAID, NIH, and certain others and also establish specific federal goals and priorities and describe specific activities required to achieve these.

Requires the submission of an addendum to the framework not later than three years after its original submission, describing progress in advancing these activities. Authorizes to be appropriated such sums as necessary to develop the framework above. Requires GAO to submit a report to Congress not later than two years after the addendum is submitted, detailing existing collaborative efforts among certain agencies for this purpose and containing an evaluation of the framework and its specified activities.American Medical Investment Generating Overseas Security Act(AMIGOS Act)To prohibit the President from taking any action to support the waiver of obligations of members of the World Trade Organization under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in relation to the prevention, containment, mitigation, or treatment of buy antibiotics–19 unless a statute is enacted expressly authorizing such a waiver with respect to the prevention, containment, mitigation, or treatment of buy antibiotics–19, and for other purposes.5/14/2021H.R. 3236Maria Elvira Salazar (R-FL-27)Referred to HFAC and H.

Ways and MeansTRIPS, WTO, intellectual property rights, buy antibiotics treatmentsStates the President may not take any action to support waiver of obligations of WRO members under the TRIPS agreement in relation to the prevention, containment, mitigation, or treatment of buy antibiotics unless a statute is enacted expressly authorizing such a waiver with respect to such. Requires the President to allocate excess U.S. buy antibiotics treatments in a specified order of priority, with certain exceptions, and to monitor the allocation of such to ensure assisted governments provide treatments to their peoples in a timely manner and do not otherwise withhold them. Requires such treatments provided to foreign countries to be marked as assistance from the American people or the U.S.

Government and to include a depiction of the flag of the U.S. If appropriate.American Rescue Plan Act of 2021To provide for reconciliation pursuant to title II of S. Con. Res.

5.2/24/2021H.R. 1319Rep. John Yarmuth (D-KY-3)Became law (P.L. 117-2)buy antibiotics, Global FundSee KFF summary.American Values ActTo permanently enact certain appropriations Act restrictions on the use of funds for abortions and involuntary sterilizations, and for other purposes.2/4/2021S.

239Sen. James Risch (R-ID)Read twice and referred to SFRCAbortion, involuntary sterilization amendment, Siljander amendment, Kemp-Kasten amendment, Peace Corps provision, Helms amendment, Biden amendmentAmends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to codify in permanent law the Siljander amendment, which prohibits the use of funds to lobby for or against abortion, and the Kemp-Kasten amendment, which prohibits funding any organization or program, as determined by the President, that supports or participates in the management of a program of coercive abortion or involuntary sterilization. Restates the Helms amendment, the Involuntary Sterilization amendment (which prohibits the use of funds to pay for involuntary sterilizations as a method of family planning or to coerce or provide a financial incentive to anyone to undergo sterilization), and the Biden amendment (which states that funds may not be used for biomedical research related to methods of or the performance of abortion or involuntary sterilization as a means of family planning) that are already in permanent law. Also amends the Peace Corps Act to codify in permanent law the Peace Corps provision, which prohibits Peace Corps funding from paying for an abortion for a Peace Corps volunteer or trainee, except in cases where the life of the woman is endangered by pregnancy or in cases of rape or incest.

In the past these have been included only in annual State-Foreign Operations appropriations language. See also the KFF fact sheet on FP/RH statutory requirements and policies and the KFF explainer on UNFPA funding and Kemp-Kasten.Binational Health Strategies Act of 2021To amend the United States-Mexico Border Health Commission Act, with respect to preparedness for buy antibiotics–19 and other infectious diseases in the border region, and for other purposes.3/03/2021H.R. 1538Rep.. Veronica Escobar (D-TX-16)Referred to H.

Energy and HFACMexicoAuthorizes and directs the President to seek to begin negotiations with Mexico to amend an existing agreement addressing infectious disease preparedness in the U.S.-Mexico Border Area, with respect to buy antibiotics and other infectious diseases, specifically requiring the U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission to submit a report on the border area’s response to buy antibiotics and requiring it to also develop and publicly publish a binational strategic plan that addresses how the area should strengthen its buy antibiotics response, sharing relevant health data, and how a buy antibiotics treatment should be disbursed throughout the area, among other things. Requires the Commission to publish what actions federal agencies in the U.S. And Mexico will take to facilitate implementation of the strategic plan and then to submit a report on actions taken each year. Requires the Commission to develop and publish a plan to prepare and respond to infectious diseases (other than buy antibiotics) within the border area, to update the plan at least once every three years for as long as necessary, and to publish what actions federal agencies in the U.S.

And Mexico will take to facilitate implementation of this plan, with a report on actions taken each year required to be submitted.BLUE Pacific ActTo establish a comprehensive, long-term United States strategy and policy for the Pacific Islands, and for other purposes.5/4/2021H.R. 2967Rep. Ed Case (D-HI-1)Referred to HFAC, H. Ways and Means, H.

Natural ResourcesPublic health capacity building, buy antibiotics, gender-based violenceStates U.S. Policy is to develop and commit to a comprehensive, multifaceted, and principled U.S. Policy in the Pacific Islands that, among other things, assists the Pacific Islands in preventing and containing the spread of the buy antibiotics zithromax. Requires the USAID Administrator, in coordination with the Secretary of States, to develop and implement a strategy to assist the Pacific Islands in improving public health outcomes and building public health capacity, including in response to the buy antibiotics zithromax.

Requires the strategy include programming to address maternal and child health, family planning and reproductive health, gender-based violence, food security and nutrition, NCDs, NTDs, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, STDs, and zoonotic and emerging infectious disease threats, clean water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), health system strengthening, and other activities. Requires a report not later than 180 days after enactment with strategy. Authorizes to be appropriated $20 million for each FY22-FY26 to carry out these efforts. Requires the Secretary of State and USAID Administrator to develop and implement an initiative to encourage and support efforts by the Pacific Island to reduce and combat gender-based violence.Climate Change Health Protection and Promotion Act of 2021To direct the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop and implement a national strategic action plan and program to assist health professionals and systems in preparing for and responding to the public health effects of climate change, and for other purposes.5/17/2021H.R.

3271Rep. Matt Cartwright (D-PA-8)Referred to H. Energy and CommerceClimate change, global healthDirects Secretary of HHS to publish a strategic action plan and establish a climate change and health program (at CDC, in collaboration with other agencies, as appropriate) to ensure the public health and health care systems are prepared for and can respond to the impacts of climate change on health in the U.S. And other nations.

Requires the action plan include an assessment of U.S. Capacity to address climate change including, among other things, providing technical assistance and support for preparedness and response plans for the health threats of climate change in developing countries, and developing or strengthening domestic and international disease surveillance systems and monitoring capacity to respond to health-related impacts of climate change. Describes priority health actions for the climate and health program, including with regard to global health aspects of climate change. Requires periodic updates of action plan.

Establishes science advisory board and its functions, including with regarding to international impacts of climate change on health. And directs HHS Secretary to have National Academies prepare reports on topic, with the first due in one year and then every 4 years thereafter.Climate Change Health Protection and Promotion Act of 2021To direct the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop and implement a national strategic action plan and program to assist health professionals and systems in preparing for and responding to the public health effects of climate change, and for other purposes.5/19/2021S. 1702Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to S.

HELPClimate change, global healthDirects Secretary of HHS to publish a strategic action plan and establish a climate change and health program (at CDC, in collaboration with other agencies, as appropriate) to ensure the public health and health care systems are prepared for and can respond to the impacts of climate change on health in the U.S. And other nations. Requires the action plan include an assessment of U.S. Capacity to address climate change including, among other things, providing technical assistance and support for preparedness and response plans for the health threats of climate change in developing countries, and developing or strengthening domestic and international disease surveillance systems and monitoring capacity to respond to health-related impacts of climate change.

Describes priority health actions for the climate and health program, including with regard to global health aspects of climate change. Requires periodic updates of action plan. Establishes science advisory board and its functions, including with regarding to international impacts of climate change on health. And directs HHS Secretary to have National Academies prepare reports on topic, with the first due in one year and then every 4 years thereafter.Curbing China’s treatment Diplomacy ActTo prioritize the international distribution of buy antibiotics treatment doses, and for other purposes.7/6/2021H.R.4362Rep.

Carlos Gimenez (R-FL-26)Referred to HFACbuy antibiotics, treatmentsRequires the Secretary of States to prioritize, in carrying out the international distribution of buy antibiotics treatment doses, distribution to Taiwan and crucial Latin American allies, subject first to Administration certification to Congress that it has determined all Americans have been afforded ample opportunity to be fully vaccinated against buy antibiotics. Requires the Secretary to ensure that not less than 25% of the total number of buy antibiotics treatment doses intended for international distribution are reserved for and distributed to Taiwan and crucial Latin American allies and states the Secretary may not distribute any doses to other recipients or countries until the above have each received at least a first shipment of their reserved doses. States the Secretary may not distribute buy antibiotics treatment doses to any country which has a government that has been determined to have engaged in systemic or widespread human rights abuses. Terminates five days after the date on which the Secretary determines the above have each achieved 40% vaccination rates of their respective populations.Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2022(State/Foreign Ops – SFOPS Approps)Making appropriations for the Department of State, foreign operations, and related programs for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2022, and for other purposes.7/6/2021H.R.

4373Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA-13)Passed House, received in the SenateAppropriationsSee KFF summary. Includes the text of the Global Health, Empowerment, and Rights (Global HER) Act (H.R. 556), which codifies prohibition of the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan.

2021, see KFF explainer). Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2022(Labor/HHS – LHHS Approps)Making appropriations for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and related agencies for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2022, and for other purposes.7/19/2021H.R. 4502Rep. Rosa DeLauro (D-CT-3)Passed HouseAppropriationsSee KFF summary.Global Autism ActTo establish a Global Autism Assistance Program.6/24/2021H.R.

4160Rep. Christopher Smith (R-NJ-4)Referred to HFACAutismEstablishes a health and education grant program known as the Global Autism Assistance Program at USAID to support activities focused on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in developing countries and to establish a program, known as Train the Trainers, to train health and education professionals working with children with ASD in developing countries. Outlines designation of eligible regions and selection of implementing NGO and activities it may carry out with the grant. Requires the implementing NGO to establish a Project Advisory Board to review local applications for content and appropriateness.

To carry out this program, requires the USAID Administrator to allocate amounts that have been appropriated or otherwise made available to USAID. Requires an annual report on activities.Global Health, Empowerment and Rights Act(Global HER Act) To prohibit the application of certain restrictive eligibility requirements to foreign nongovernmental organizations with respect to the provision of assistance under part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.1/28/2021H.R. 556Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA-13)Referred to HFACAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies prohibition of the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan.

2021, see KFF explainer). States that notwithstanding any provision of law, regulation, or policy, foreign non-governmental organizations (NGOs) shall not be ineligible for certain foreign aid under the Foreign Assistance Act solely on the basis of health or medical services provided with non-U.S. Funds (insofar as legal in country where provided and under U.S. Law) and shall not be subject to requirements relating to their use of non-U.S.

Funds for advocacy and lobbying activities.*Global Health, Empowerment and Rights Act(Global HER Act) To prohibit the application of certain restrictive eligibility requirements to foreign nongovernmental organizations with respect to the provision of assistance under part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.1/28/2021S. 142Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH)Read twice and referred to SFRCAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies prohibition of the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021, see KFF explainer).

States that notwithstanding any provision of law, regulation, or policy, foreign non-governmental organizations (NGOs) shall not be ineligible for certain foreign aid under the Foreign Assistance Act solely on the basis of health or medical services provided with non-U.S. Funds (insofar as legal in country where provided and under U.S. Law) and shall not be subject to requirements relating to their use of non-U.S. Funds for advocacy and lobbying activities.*Global Health Security Act of 2021To authorize a comprehensive, strategic approach for United States foreign assistance to developing countries to strengthen global health security, and for other purposes.1/21/2021H.R.

391Rep. Gerald Connolly (D-VA-11)Passed House, read twice and referred to SFRCGlobal health security, global health emergenciesStates it is U.S. Policy to promote and invest in global health security and zithromax preparedness as a core national security interest. Establishes a Global Health Security Agenda Interagency Review Council, designates members, responsibilities, and frequency of meetings.

Designates a U.S. Coordinator for Global Health Security responsible for coordination of the interagency process for responding to global health security emergencies. Express Sense of Congress that the President should consider appointing an individual with significant background and expertise in public health or emergency response management to such position. Requires a U.S.

Global health security strategy, its implementation (including agency-specific plans), and an annual report on status of implementation. Directs the Secretary of State, Treasury Secretary, USAID Administrator, and HHS Secretary, among others, to seek to enter into negotiations with donors, relevant U.N. Agencies (including WHO), and other stakeholders to establish a fund for global health security and zithromax preparedness as a multilateral, catalytic financing mechanism. Describes Fund’s Advisory Board, purpose, Executive Board and its makeup and duties.

Creates a Coordinator of U.S. Government activities to advance global health security, who shall be appointed by the President to represent the U.S. On the Executive Board. Outlines eligible partner country definition and Fund program objectives, supported activities, administration, including appointment of an Administrator appointed by the Executive Board, and transparency and accountability requirements.

Requires reports to Congress on the Fund including a 6 month status report and then annual reports after the Fund’s establishment. And authorizes U.S. Contributions to the Fund with a limit that the U.S. Share not exceed 33% of total contributions to the Fund cumulatively.Global Malnutrition Prevention and Treatment Act of 2021To advance targeted and evidence-based interventions for the prevention and treatment of global malnutrition and to improve the coordination of such programs, and for other purposes.07/26/2021H.R.

4693Rep. Michael McCaul (R-TX-10)Passed HFAC (Ordered to be Reported by Voice Vote)MalnutritionAuthorizes the USAID Administrator to support efforts to prevent and treat malnutrition globally, including by targeting resources and nutrition interventions to support the most vulnerable populations susceptible to severe malnutrition, including children under the age of 5 and pregnant and lactating women. Directs the Administrator and others to coordinate with bilateral and multilateral donors, governments of partner countries, U.N. Agencies, and others to prevent and treat malnutrition globally.

Requires the Administrator and others to seek to leverage additional resources to this end by increasing interagency cooperation among relevant departments and agencies represented in the Global Nutrition Coordination Plan. Requires the selection of priority countries and outlines criteria. Express Sense of Congress that efforts to undertake nutrition interventions in countries not selected as priority countries should continue. Authorizes the establishment of the Nutrition Leadership Council within USAID and outlines its duties and membership.

Requires the development of an implementation plan. Requires an annual progress report for five years.Global zithromax Prevention and Biosecurity ActTo establish a global zoonotic disease task force, and for other purposes. 5/20/2021H.R. 3424Rep.

Grace Meng (D-NY-6)Referred to HFACzithromax, zoonotic diseases, One Health, global health security, biosecurityRequires the Secretary of State and USAID Administrator to work with certain relevant agency heads to coordinate, work with, and engage governments, multilateral entities, and certain others to prevent zoonotic spillover events through various actions such as addressing the commercial trade in wildlife, strengthening global capacity for detection of zoonotic diseases with zithromax potential, and supporting the development of One Health systems at the community level. Establishes the global zoonotic disease task force and outlines its membership and their terms, duties (including developing and publishing a plan for global biosecurity and zoonotic disease prevention and response and expanding the scope of the global health security strategy to more robustly support the prevention of zoonotic spillover and to respond to zoonotic disease investigations and outbreaks by establishing a 10 year strategy), required reports from agencies to the task force as well as from the task force to Congress, and its termination date 7 years after the date of enactment or a later date that is not later than two years after that.Global zithromax Prevention and Biosecurity ActTo establish a global zoonotic disease task force, and for other purposes. 5/20/2021S.1737Sen. Chris Coons (D-DE)Read twice and referred to SFRCzithromax, zoonotic diseases, One Health, global health security,biosecurityRequires the Secretary of State and USAID Administrator to work with certain relevant agency heads to coordinate, work with, and engage governments, multilateral entities, and certain others to prevent zoonotic spillover events through various actions such as addressing the commercial trade in wildlife, strengthening global capacity for detection of zoonotic diseases with zithromax potential, and supporting the development of One Health systems at the community level.

Establishes the global zoonotic disease task force and outlines its membership and their terms, duties (including developing and publishing a plan for global biosecurity and zoonotic disease prevention and response and expanding the scope of the global health security strategy to more robustly support the prevention of zoonotic spillover and to respond to zoonotic disease investigations and outbreaks by establishing a 10 year strategy), required reports from agencies to the task force as well as from the task force to Congress, and its termination date 7 years after the date of enactment or a later date that is not later than two years after that.Greater Leadership Overseas for the Benefit of Equality Act of 2021(GLOBE Act of 2021)To protect human rights and enhance opportunities for LGBTQI people around the world, and for other purposes. 6/9/2021S. 1996Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to SFRCLGBTQI health, HIV, Mexico City policyRequires equal access of all elements of the population to programs funded by U.S.

Assistance, including global health programs.Also requires PEPFAR to. Be implemented in a way that equitably serves LGBTQI people, submit a report to Congress describing international prosecutions for sex work or consensual sexual activity based on commodities provided by PEPFAR or other U.S. Support, and submit a report to Congress on HIV/AIDS-related index testing. Requires GAO to submit a report to Congress that describes the impact of the implementation and enforcement of any iteration of the Mexico City Policy on the global LGBTQI community.

And expresses Sense of Congress regarding the U.S. Engaging international organizations in efforts to eliminate LGBTQI discrimination.Greater Leadership Overseas for the Benefit of Equality Act of 2021(GLOBE Act of 2021)To protect human rights and enhance opportunities for LGBTQI people around the world, and for other purposes. 6/8/2021H.R. 3800Rep.

Dina Titus (D-NV-1)Referred to HFAC, H. JudiciaryLGBTQI health, HIV, Mexico City policyRequires equal access of all elements of the population to programs funded by U.S. Assistance, including global health programs.Also requires PEPFAR to. Be implemented in a way that equitably serves LGBTQI people, submit a report to Congress describing international prosecutions for sex work or consensual sexual activity based on commodities provided by PEPFAR or other U.S.

Support, and submit a report to Congress on HIV/AIDS-related index testing. Requires GAO to submit a report to Congress that describes the impact of the implementation and enforcement of any iteration of the Mexico City Policy on the global LGBTQI community. Expresses Sense of Congress regarding the U.S. Engaging international organizations in efforts to eliminate LGBTQI discrimination.

And repeals the Mexico City policy by removing certain limitations on eligibility for foreign assistance.Honoring OCEANIA ActTo strengthen United States engagement in the Oceania region and enhance the security and resilience of allies and partners of the Oceania community, and for other purposes.5/20/2021H.R. 3373Rep. Ami Bera (D-CA-7)Referred to HFAC, H. Veterans’ Affairs, H.

Natural Resources, H. Armed Services, H. Financial Services, H. Judiciary, H.

Transportation and Infrastructure, H. Homeland SecurityPublic health capacity building, global health securityStates it is U.S. Policy to, among other things, improve the local capacity of the countries of Oceania to address public health challenges and improve global health security. Requires the Secretary of State, in consultation with the HHS Secretary, to establish a program to support building public health capacity and improving access to care and local health outcomes in Oceania related to maternal and child health, STDs, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, NTDs, NCDs, gender-based violence, substance use disorder, mortality due to epidemics, disasters, and the impacts from severe weather and environmental change, and other health issues.

Requires a report on these efforts annually. Authorizes to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the program. Requires amounts appropriated or made available to remain available under expended.Honoring OCEANIA ActTo strengthen United States engagement in the Oceania region and enhance the security and resilience of allies and partners of the Oceania community, and for other purposes.5/20/2021S. 1774Sen.

Brian Schatz (D-HI)Read twice and referred to SFRCPublic health capacity building, global health securityStates it is U.S. Policy to, among other things, improve the local capacity of the countries of Oceania to address public health challenges and improve global health security. Requires the Secretary of State, in consultation with the HHS Secretary, to establish a program to support building public health capacity and improving access to care and local health outcomes in Oceania related to maternal and child health, STDs, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, NTDs, NCDs, gender-based violence, substance use disorder, mortality due to epidemics, disasters, and the impacts from severe weather and environmental change, and other health issues. Requires a report on these efforts annually.

Authorizes to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the program. Requires amounts appropriated or made available to remain available under expended.International Human Rights Defense Act of 2021To establish in the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor of the Department of State a Special Envoy for the Human Rights of LGBTI Peoples, and for other purposes.2/22/2021H.R. 1201Rep. Alan Lowenthal (D-CA-47)Referred to HFACLGBTI health, HIVIncludes statement of U.S.

Policy regarding LGBTI issues globally, including employing a multisectoral approach to preventing and responding to criminalization, discrimination, and violence against LGBTI people internationally, including activities in the health sector. Authorizes the provision of U.S. Assistance to prevent and respond to these issues internationally, including enhancement of health sector capacity related to violence against LGBTI people and communities and to combat HIV.International Human Rights Defense Act of 2021To establish in the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor of the Department of State a Special Envoy for the Human Rights of LGBTI Peoples, and for other purposes.2/24/2021S. 424Sen.

Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to SFRCLGBTI health, HIVIncludes statement of U.S. Policy regarding LGBTI issues globally, including employing a multisectoral approach to preventing and responding to criminalization, discrimination, and violence against LGBTI people internationally, including activities in the health sector. Authorizes the provision of U.S. Assistance to prevent and respond to these issues internationally, including enhancement of health sector capacity related to violence against LGBTI people and communities and to combat HIV.International zithromax Preparedness and buy antibiotics Response Act of 2021To improve global health, and for other purposes.6/24/2021S.

2297Sen. James Risch (R-ID)Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orderszithromax preparedness, buy antibiotics, treatments, WHO, health systems strengthening, CEPI, global health security, Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and malariaRequires a report describing certain foreign assistance obligated/expended under the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 and a plan for certain remaining funds. Requires development of a strategy to expand access to, and accelerate the global distribution of, buy antibiotics treatments to other countries. Requires a report that assesses the global humanitarian response to buy antibiotics and outlines specific elements of the U.S.

Government’s country-level response to the buy antibiotics zithromax. In the event of an infectious disease outbreak outside the U.S. With zithromax potential, states the President should designate the Department of State to serve as the lead for diplomatic engagement and related foreign policy efforts, USAID to serve as the key lead agency for design and implementation of the U.S. International response, relief, and recovery assistance, and the CDC to serve as the public health lead for the international response such as building up (in coordination with USAID) emergency operation centers.

Allows certain foreign assistance funding to be used to support USAID disaster surge capacity. Requires a U.S. Global health security strategy and report. Authorizes to be established a committee on global health security and zithromax and biological threats within the National Security Council (NSC) led by the Special Advisor for Global Health Security of the NSC.

Within the Department of State, establishes a Special Representative for U.S. International activities to advance global health security and diplomacy overseas, to be appointed by the President and report to the Secretary of State and to lead in developing a global zithromax prevention, preparedness and response framework. Authorizes the Representative to transfer and allocate certain U.S. Foreign assistance funding to the relevant departments and agencies implementing the U.S.

Global health security strategy. Authorizes to be appropriated $3 billion for the five-year period beginning Oct. 1, 2022, to support enhancing preparedness in partner countries, replenishing the USAID Emergency Reserve Fund, U.S. Contributions to the World Bank Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Multi-Donor Fund, and U.S.

Contributions to a new multilateral, catalytic financing mechanism for global health security and zithromax prevention and preparedness (see “the Fund” below). Requires U.S. Global health program leadership identify areas of collaboration and coordination to ensure that such activities contribute to health systems strengthening. Directs the Secretary of State, with the USAID Administrator, to work with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Gavi, the treatment Alliance, bilateral donors, and others to develop shared core indicators for strengthened health systems.

Authorizes the U.S. To participate in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI). Expresses Sense of Congress that the President should make an immediate contribution to CEPI of $300 million to expand research and development of treatments to combat the spread of buy antibiotics variants. Requires an annual National Intelligence Estimate (for five years) regarding the risks posed to the national security interests of the U.S.

By the emergence, reemergence, and overseas transmission of pathogens with zithromax potential. Requires the Secretary of State and others to work with WHO and other key stakeholders to establish or strengthen effective early warning systems for infectious disease threats with epidemic and zithromax potential. Directs the Secretary of State, with the HHS Secretary, to work with WHO and like-minded member states to adopt an approach toward assessing infectious disease threats under the International Health Regulations (2005) for the WHO to identify and transparently communicate on an ongoing basis varying levels of risk leading up to, and during and after, a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) declaration. Directs the Secretary of State and others to seek to enter into negotiations to establish “the Fund;” authorizes the President to make available for U.S.

Contributions to the Fund such funds as may be appropriated or otherwise made available for such purpose. Limits the U.S. Contribution to the Fund to not exceed 33% of the total contributions from all sources.Mental Health in International Development and Humanitarian Settings Act(MINDS Act)To enhance mental health and psychosocial support within United States foreign assistance programs.6/17/2021H.R. 3988Rep.

Theodore Deutch (D-FL-22)Referred to HFACMental health, children in adversity, buy antibioticsExpresses Sense of Congress that mental health is integral and essential to overall health outcomes and other development objectives. Codifies the position of USAID coordinator for mental health and psychosocial support and describes the position’s duties, including establishing a Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Working Group. Describes the Group’s duties and members. States U.S.

Policy is to integrate mental health and psychosocial support across all foreign assistance programs funded by the U.S.. Requires USAID and the Department of State regional bureaus and missions to utilize such policy for local capacity building, as appropriate and that such programming be evidence-based and culturally competent and respond to the specific needs of children in adversity. Requires USAID to brief Congress on progress and challenges to implementation, including programming in conflict and humanitarian settings, as well as the impact of buy antibiotics on programming. Requires the USAID Administrator in consultation with the OMB Director to brief Congress annually for five years (FY22 – FY26) on spending for this programming in U.S.

Foreign assistance.Mental Health in International Development and Humanitarian Settings Act(MINDS Act)To enhance mental health and psychosocial support within United States foreign assistance programs.6/17/2021S. 2105Sen. Robert Casey (D-PA)Read twice and referred to SFRCMental health, children in adversity, buy antibioticsExpresses Sense of Congress that mental health is integral and essential to overall health outcomes and other development objectives. Codifies the position of USAID coordinator for mental health and psychosocial support and describes the position’s duties, including establishing a Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Working Group.

Describes the Group’s duties and members. States U.S. Policy is to integrate mental health and psychosocial support across all foreign assistance programs funded by the U.S.. Requires USAID and the Department of State regional bureaus and missions to utilize such policy for local capacity building, as appropriate and that such programming be evidence-based and culturally competent and respond to the specific needs of children in adversity.

Requires USAID to brief Congress on progress and challenges to implementation, including programming in conflict and humanitarian settings, as well as the impact of buy antibiotics on programming. Requires the USAID Administrator in consultation with the OMB Director to brief Congress annually for five years (FY22 – FY26) on spending for this programming in U.S. Foreign assistance.Nullifying Opportunities for Variants to Infect and Decimate Act(NOVID Act)To establish a program to oversee the global buy antibiotics response and prepare for future zithromaxs, and for other purposes.6/8/2021H.R. 3778Rep.

Raja Krishnamoorthi (D-IL-8)Referred to HFAC and H. Energy and Commercebuy antibiotics, global health security, zithromax preparedness and responseEstablishes the zithromax preparedness and response program to be responsible for and provide oversight over the U.S. Global health response to the buy antibiotics zithromax and protect Americans from the emergence of buy antibiotics variants and other pathogens with zithromax potential. Require President to appoint program director who will coordinate the work of identified agencies, including USAID, CDC, and the Department of State, among others.

Requires development of a comprehensive strategy to end the buy antibiotics zithromax worldwide as well as a long-term strategy for preventing future zithromaxs. Authorizes to be appropriated $34 billion for these efforts, and expresses Sense of Congress that $25 billion be made available to scale treatment manufacturing capacity and produce treatments, $8.5 billion to cover the cost of end-to-end delivery and administration of treatments in target countries, and $500 million to establish a global disease surveillance network to protect against future zithromaxs. Describes implementation of comprehensive strategy, including requiring director to ensure immediate release of 80 million treatment doses that the U.S. Has already committed to send abroad and to reassess the U.S.

treatment stockpile to determine whether further treatments can be sent abroad and to coordinate with BARDA to rapidly scale manufacturing capacity around the world to produce 8 billion treatment doses as soon as possible. Also requires director to ensure equitable access to treatments in collaboration with COVAX and to work with international partners to provide enough treatments to lower- and middle-income countries to fully vaccinate at least 60% of their respective populations, especially 92 countries identified by COVAX as being most in need of assistance. Requires the program to, among other things, build on PEPFAR and other existing U.S. Programs and relationships bilaterally and multilaterally.

Express Sense of Congress that in the face of a global health emergency, the U.S. Government has broad authority, including under the Defense Production Act and the “Bayh-Dole Act”, to ensure adequate supply of treatments, necessary components, and raw materials through technology sharing and direct collaboration with manufacturers around the world.Nullifying Opportunities for Variants to Infect and Decimate Act(NOVID Act) To establish a program to oversee the global buy antibiotics response and prepare for future zithromaxs, and for other purposes.6/8/2021S. 1976Sen. Jeff Merkley (D-OR)Read twice and referred to SFRCbuy antibiotics, global health security, zithromax preparedness and responseEstablishes the zithromax preparedness and response program to be responsible for and provide oversight over the U.S.

Global health response to the buy antibiotics zithromax and protect Americans from the emergence of buy antibiotics variants and other pathogens with zithromax potential. Require President to appoint program director who will coordinate the work of identified agencies, including USAID, CDC, and the Department of State, among others. Requires development of a comprehensive strategy to end the buy antibiotics zithromax worldwide as well as a long-term strategy for preventing future zithromaxs. Authorizes to be appropriated $34 billion for these efforts, and expresses Sense of Congress that $25 billion be made available to scale treatment manufacturing capacity and produce treatments, $8.5 billion to cover the cost of end-to-end delivery and administration of treatments in target countries, and $500 million to establish a global disease surveillance network to protect against future zithromaxs.

Describes implementation of comprehensive strategy, including requiring director to ensure immediate release of 80 million treatment doses that the U.S. Has already committed to send abroad and to reassess the U.S. treatment stockpile to determine whether further treatments can be sent abroad and to coordinate with BARDA to rapidly scale manufacturing capacity around the world to produce 8 billion treatment doses as soon as possible. Also requires director to ensure equitable access to treatments in collaboration with COVAX and to work with international partners to provide enough treatments to lower- and middle-income countries to fully vaccinate at least 60% of their respective populations, especially 92 countries identified by COVAX as being most in need of assistance.

Requires the program to, among other things, build on PEPFAR and other existing U.S. Programs and relationships bilaterally and multilaterally. Express Sense of Congress that in the face of a global health emergency, the U.S. Government has broad authority, including under the Defense Production Act and the “Bayh-Dole Act”, to ensure adequate supply of treatments, necessary components, and raw materials through technology sharing and direct collaboration with manufacturers around the world.Preventing Foreign Attempts To Erode Healthcare Innovation ActTo prohibit the use of funds to support a measure at the World Trade Organization waiving intellectual property rights, and for other purposes.5/18/2021S.

1683Sen. Tim Scott (R-SC)Read twice and referred to S. FinanceTRIPS, WTO, intellectual property rights, buy antibiotics treatmentsExpresses Sense of Congress that U.S. Should continue to promote strong international [sic] property rights internationally and that it is in the national interest of the U.S.

To oppose efforts to transfer U.S. Intellectual property and technology to China or other countries seeking to profit off U.S. Investments. Prohibits use of funds to support, allow, or facilitate the negotiation or approval of the TRIPS waiver for the prevention, containment, and treatment of buy antibiotics proposed by India and South Africa or any other measure at the WTO to waive intellectual property rights.Preventing Future zithromaxs Act of 2021To address the public health risks posed by wildlife markets, and for other purposes.1/4/2021H.R.

151Rep. Mike Quigley (D-IL-5)Referred to HFAC, H. Energy and Commerce, H. Judiciary, H.

Ways and Means, H. Financial Services, H. Natural ResourcesGlobal health security, One Health, zoonotic diseasesRequires the HHS Secretary to enter into an agreement with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine for it to conduct a study on the risk of wildlife markets on the emergency of novel viral pathogens, to be submitted not later than one year after the date of agreement. Expresses Sense of Congress that global institutions, including WHO, and others including USAID should promote the paradigm of One Health.

States U.S. Policy is to facilitate international cooperation to close high risk wildlife markets around that world and to work to develop agreements and protocols to close these markets. Allows the President to impose sanctions on any country (or nationals of a country) continuing to license or enable commercial wildlife markets or engaged in certain activities. Authorizes FY 2021 – FY 2030 funding for USAID activities related to sustainable food systems.

Requires the USAID administrator to increase activities related to biodiversity, global health, and resilience, among other things, in order to address the threats and causes of zoonotic disease outbreaks.. Requires reporting from the Department of State and USAID describing these efforts.Preventing Future zithromaxs Act of 2021To address the public health risks posed by wildlife markets, and for other purposes.1/25/2021S. 37Sen. John Cornyn (R-TX)Read twice and referred to SFRCGlobal health security, One Health, zoonotic diseasesRequires the HHS Secretary to enter into an agreement with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine for it to conduct a study on the risk of wildlife markets on the emergency of novel viral pathogens, to be submitted not later than one year after the date of agreement.

Expresses Sense of Congress that global institutions, including WHO, and others including USAID should promote the paradigm of One Health. States U.S. Policy is to facilitate international cooperation to close high risk wildlife markets around that world and to work to develop agreements and protocols to close these markets. Allows the President to impose sanctions on any country (or nationals of a country) continuing to license or enable commercial wildlife markets or engaged in certain activities.

Authorizes FY 2021 – FY 2030 funding for USAID activities related to sustainable food systems. Requires the USAID administrator to increase activities related to biodiversity, global health, and resilience, among other things, in order to address the threats and causes of zoonotic disease outbreaks.. Requires reporting from the Department of State and USAID describing these efforts.Protecting Life in Foreign Assistance ActTo restrict the availability of Federal funds to organizations associated with the abortion industry.1/28/2021H.R. 534Rep.

Virginia Foxx (R-NC-5)Referred to HFACAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021. See KFF explainer) and expands it to apply more broadly to federal funding made available for purposes outside of the U.S. To 1) any foreign nonprofit organization, foreign nongovernmental organization, foreign multilateral organization, or foreign quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities, and 2) any domestic nonprofit organization or domestic nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities.Protecting Life in Foreign Assistance ActTo restrict the availability of Federal funds to organizations associated with the abortion industry.1/28/2021S.

137Sen. Mike Lee (R-UT)Read twice and referred to SFRCAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021. See KFF explainer) and expands it to apply more broadly to federal funding made available for purposes outside of the U.S.

To 1) any foreign nonprofit organization, foreign nongovernmental organization, foreign multilateral organization, or foreign quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities, and 2) any domestic nonprofit organization or domestic nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities.Reach Every Mother and Child ActTo amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to implement policies to end preventable maternal, newborn, and child deaths globally.4/29/2021S. 1451Sen. Susan Collins (R-ME)Read twice and referred to SFRCMaternal health, child healthIncludes statement of U.S. Policy to establish and implement a coordinated, integrated, and comprehensive strategy to end preventable child and maternal deaths and ensure healthy and productive lives.

Requires the establishment and implementation of a five-year comprehensive strategy to contribute toward the global goal of ending preventable child and maternal deaths by 2030. States the President should designate a Child and Maternal Survival Coordinator and describes their duties. Requires an annual report on progress.Reproductive Rights are Human Rights Act of 2021To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to require a section on reproductive rights in the Annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.5/28/2021H.R. 3576Rep.

Katherine Clark (D-MA-5)Referred to HFACState Dept. Annual human rights report, family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH), maternal mortality, abortion, violence against womenAmends existing law to require annual reporting by the Department of State on human rights to include, among other things. The status of reproductive rights in each country. Description of the rates and causes of pregnancy-related injuries and deaths (including deaths due to unsafe abortions), violence against women, and access to family planning.

Requires that civil society and multilateral organizations’ representatives in the U.S. And countries included in such reporting be consulted with during the preparation of annual reporting.Reproductive Rights are Human Rights Act of 2021To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to require a section on reproductive rights in the Annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.5/26/2021S. 1864Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Read twice and referred to SFRCState Dept.

Annual human rights report, family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH), maternal mortality, abortion, violence against womenAmends existing law to require annual reporting by the Department of State on human rights to include, among other things. The status of reproductive rights in each country. Description of the rates and causes of pregnancy-related injuries and deaths (including deaths due to unsafe abortions), violence against women, and access to family planning. Requires that civil society and multilateral organizations’ representatives in the U.S.

And countries included in such reporting be consulted with during the preparation of annual reporting.Robust International Response to zithromax ActTo provide support for a robust global response to the buy antibiotics zithromax.2/11/2021H.R. 986Rep. Jesus “Chuy” Garcia (D-IL-4)Referred to H. Financial Servicesbuy antibioticsDirects the Secretary of the Treasury to instruct U.S.

Executive Directors at international financial institutions to ensure international financial institution support for a robust international response to the global buy antibiotics zithromax, including to oppose the approval or endorsement of any loan, grant, document, or strategy that would lead to a decrease in health care spending or in any other spending that would impede the ability of any country to prevent or contain the spread of, or treat persons who are or may be infected with, the buy antibiotics zithromax.Securing America From Epidemics Act(SAFE Act) To authorize United States participation in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, and for other purposes.3/23/2021H.R. 2118Rep. Ami Bera (D-CA-7)Passed House, read twice and referred to SFRCResearch &. Development (R&D), global health security, zithromax, epidemicAuthorizes U.S.

Participation in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI). Reports to Congress required to be submitted by the President not later than 180 days after enactment of the Act and to outline planned U.S. Contributions to CEPI, the manner and extent to which the U.S. Will participate in the governance of CEPI, and how participation in CEPI supports relevant U.S.

Strategies and programs in health security and biodefense, among other things. Authorizes certain appropriated funding to be made available for U.S. Contributions to CEPI.Strategic Competition Act of 2021To address issues involving the People’s Republic of China. 4/15/2021S.

1169Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Ordersbuy antibiotics, health cooperation, WHO, global health security, abortion, forced sterilization, debt reliefExpresses sense of Congress that the U.S. Government should encourage other foreign governments to use the official and scientific names for the buy antibiotics zithromax. States U.S.

Policy is to deepen cooperation between and among the U.S., Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Thailand, and Australia, including through scientific and health partnerships. Expresses sense of Congress that recent pledge from the first-ever Quad (Australia, India, Japan, U.S.) leaders meeting on March 12, 2021, to respond to the economic and health impacts of buy antibiotics, including expanding treatment production and equitable access, further advances cooperation among Quad nations. States it is U.S. Policy to stand with the nations of ASEAN as they respond to buy antibiotics and support greater cooperation in building capacity to prepare for and respond to zithromaxs and other public health challenges.

States it is U.S. Policy to advocate and actively advance Taiwan’s meaningful participation in the World Health Assembly, among other bodies. Requires report on the origins of the buy antibiotics zithromax to be submitted by the Director of National Intelligence, in coordination with the Secretary of State, HHS Secretary, and others, not later than 180 days after enactment. Requires strategies that describe how the U.S.

Will enhance cooperation with Canada, the European Union, NATO, and European partner countries in managing relations with China, including detailing diplomatic efforts to work with them to track and counter Chinese attempts to exert influence across the multilateral system, including at WHO. Requires a strategy for countering and limiting Chinese influence in, and access to, the Middle East and North Africa, including efforts to encourage U.S. Private sector and public-private partnerships in healthcare technology, among other things. States it is U.S.

Policy to work with Australia, New Zealand, and Japan to advance shared alliance goals of the Oceania region concerning health, among other things, and to improve the local capacity of the countries of Oceania to address public health challenges and improve global health security. Address the imposition of sanctions with respect to systematic rape, coercive abortion, forced sterilization, or involuntary contraceptive implantation in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Addresses reporting related to debt relief via the International Development Association (IDA) for certain countries to respond to the buy antibiotics zithromax.Support for Global Financial Institution zithromax Response Act of 2021To support efforts by international financial institutions to provide a robust global response to the buy antibiotics–19 zithromax.1/27/2021S. 67Sen.

Richard Durbin (D-IL)Read twice and referred to SFRCbuy antibioticsDirects the Secretary of the Treasury to instruct U.S. Executive Directors at international financial institutions to ensure international financial institution support for a robust international response to the global buy antibiotics zithromax, including to oppose the approval or endorsement of any loan, grant, document, or strategy that would lead to a decrease in health care spending or in any other spending that would impede the ability of any country to prevent or contain the spread of, or treat persons who are or may be infected with, the buy antibiotics zithromax.Support UNFPA Funding ActTo authorize contributions to the United Nations Population Fund, and for other purposes.6/16/2021H.R. 3938Rep. Chrissy Houlahan (D-PA-6)Referred to HFACUNFPA, family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH)Includes statement of U.S.

Policy regarding financial support for UNFPA as a crucial part of U.S. Global health commitment. Authorizes appropriations for five years for an annual contribution to UNFPA to support core functions and programs.To amend the National Security Act of 1947 to require the President to designate an employee of the National Security Council to be responsible for zithromax prevention and response, and for other purposes.2/8/2021S. 290Sen.

Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to HSGACzithromaxRequires the President to designate an employee of the National Security Council to be the permanent coordinator for zithromax prevention and response for the federal government, outlines duties, and grants them authority to represent the U.S. In bilateral and multilateral discussions and agreements on relevant matters.To direct the Secretary of State to develop a strategy to regain observer status for Taiwan in the World Health Organization, and for other purposes.2/18/2021H.R. 1145Rep. Young Kim (R-CA-39)Passed HFAC (Ordered to be Reported in the Nature of a Substitute by Voice Vote)WHO, TaiwanDirects the Department of State to include additional information in its annual reports concerning Taiwan’s participation at WHO’s World Health Assembly as an observer.To direct the Secretary of State to develop a strategy to regain observer status for Taiwan in the World Health Organization, and for other purposes.3/17/2021S.

812Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar Under General OrdersWHO, TaiwanDirects the Department of State to include additional information in its annual reports concerning Taiwan’s participation at WHO’s World Health Assembly as an observer.To prohibit the use of funds to seek membership in the World Health Organization or to provide assessed or voluntary contributions to the World Health Organization.1/28/2021H.R. 497Rep. Jodey Arrington (R-TX-19)Referred to HFACWHOProhibits the use of federal funds to seek membership by the U.S.

In WHO or to provide assessed or voluntary U.S. Contributions to WHO until such time as the President certifies that WHO meets certain conditions, including. WHO has adopted meaningful reforms to ensure that humanitarian assistance is not politicized and is to be provided to those with the most need, WHO is not under the control or significant malign influence of the Chinese Communist party, WHO is not involved in a coverup of the Chinese Communist Party’s response to the buy antibiotics zithromax, WHO grants observer status to Taiwan, WHO does not divert humanitarian or medical supplies to Iran, North Korea, or Syria, and WHO has put in place mechanisms to increase transparency and accountability in its operations and eliminate waste, fraud, and abuse.United States Climate Leadership in International Mitigation, Adaptation, and Technology Enhancement Act of 2021(U.S. CLIMATE Act) To restore the United States international leadership on climate change and clean energy, and for other purposes.

4/19/2021S. 1201Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Read twice and referred to SFRCClimate change, global healthRequires the Secretary of State, in consultation with other relevant agencies, to conduct biennial comprehensive evaluations of present and ongoing disruptions to the global climate system, including the scarcity of global natural resources including fresh water, global food, health, and energy insecurities and conditions that contribute to gender-based violence, among other things. Requires these evaluations to be used by the Secretary of State to inform the development and implementation of a climate security strategy, and to develop and implement plans to account for the impacts of climate change on global human health, fresh water, and marginalized groups.

States U.S. Policy is to ensure that the International Climate Change Adaptation, Mitigation, and Security Program (required to be established under the act by the Secretary of State, in coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury and the Administrator of USAID) provide resources to developing countries to support efforts that reduce the vulnerability and increase the resilience capacities of communities to the effects of climate change, including effects on water availability and health and diseases. Directs the Secretary of the Treasury to use the influence of the U.S. To ensure that the Green Climate Fund requires country recipients to submit investment plan that describes how adaptation projects will advance public health outcomes, among other things.

Incorporates the Women and Climate Change Act.Uyghur Stop Oppressive Sterilizations Act(Uyghur SOS Act) To address state-sanctioned violence against women in the People’s Republic of China, including rape and torture in detention and forced sterilizations, forced abortions, and other coercive birth restriction policies, particularly in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, and for other purposes.5/18/2021H.R. 3306Rep. Vicky HartzlerReferred to HFAC and H. JudiciaryForced sterilization, abortionStates U.S.

Policy is to regard the prevention of genocide and other atrocity crimes as a national interest particularly when those actions target certain groups in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region through, among other things, forced sterilizations, forced abortions and other coercive birth restrictions policies, and sexual violence and other torture in detention, to raise the issue of state-sanctioned violence against women, including rape, torture, and coercively enforced population control policies in China in all multilateral organizations where the U.S. And China are members, including at the U.N. Security Council, and to consider state-sanctioned violence against women, including forced sterilizations and forced abortions and the systematic use of rape and torture in mass internment camps in the Region as a gross violation of internationally-recognized human rights. Expresses the Sense of Congress that all governments, including the U.S., and international organizations, such as the U.N., should call the atrocities perpetuated by the government of China, including forced sterilizations and forced abortions and other sexual violence, as genocide and crimes against humanity and that the U.S.

Should strongly condemn the intimidation and threats targeting Uyghur and Kazakh women who provide public evidence of sexual violence and forced sterilizations and forced abortions in mass internment camps and the journalist who report these stories. Also expresses Sense of Congress that U.N. Member states should condemn such atrocities by demanding that China end all forced sterilization, forced abortions, and other state-sanctioned violence against women, among other things. Requires the president to submit a strategy for ending atrocity crimes in the Region.

Requires the Secretary of State to provide all appropriate assistance to women who belong to certain groups and who experienced sexual violence, torture, forced sterilizations and forced abortions in China in order for them to receive needed medical care and psychological support. Requires all existing authorities to be used to allow such women to at least temporarily enter the U.S.Women and Climate Change Act of 2021To address the disparate impact of climate change on women and support the efforts of women globally to address climate change, and for other purposes.1/11/2021H.R. 260Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA-13)Referred to HFAC, H.

Energy &. CommerceClimate change, global health, reproductive healthAddresses climate change and its effects on women and girls. Establishes the Federal Interagency Working Group on Women and Climate Change within the Department of State and outlines its functions, such as identifying best practices for collecting data on the disparate impact of climate change on women – including in access to comprehensive health care, including reproductive health and rights. Requires the Department of State’s Office of Global Women’s Issues (GWI) to submit a strategy (and shortly thereafter an implementation plan and budget) to prevent and respond to the effects of climate change on women, including effective action to promote public health.

Requires the Ambassador-at-Large of GWI to designate a Senior Coordinator for Women and Climate Change. Requires the GWI Ambassador and the Senior Coordinator to submit to the appropriate congressional committees an assessment of the human and financial resources necessary to carry out the Act.World Health Organization Accountability ActTo prohibit the availability of United States contributions to the World Health Organization until Congress receives a full report on China and the buy antibiotics–19 zithromax, and for other purposes.1/21/2021H.R. 374Rep. Lauren Boebert (R-CO-3)Referred to HFACWHO, buy antibioticsProhibits the use of federal funds for U.S.

Contributions to WHO or U.S. Participation in any of the activities of WHO until the Secretary of State and HHS Secretary jointly submit a report to Congress describing the manner and extent to which the handling of the buy antibiotics outbreak prior to March 11, 2020, by WHO and China contributed to the emergency of the zithromax.NOTES. SFRC means Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. HFAC means the House Committee on Foreign Affairs.

SFOPS means Department of State, foreign operations, and related programs. LGBTI means lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or intersex. WHO is the World Health Organization. ASEAN is the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

* Other than those that apply to U.S. NGOs receiving certain foreign aid under the Foreign Assistance Act..

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About This TrackerThis tracker provides the number zithromax cost at walgreens zithromax online no prescription of confirmed cases and deaths from novel antibiotics by country, the trend in confirmed case and death counts by country, and a global map showing which countries have confirmed cases and deaths. The data are drawn from the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) antibiotics Resource Center’s buy antibiotics Map and the World Health Organization’s (WHO) antibiotics Disease (buy antibiotics-2019) situation reports.This tracker will be updated regularly, as new data are released.Related Content. About buy antibiotics zithromax cost at walgreens antibioticsIn late 2019, a new antibiotics emerged in central China to cause disease in humans. Cases of this disease, known as buy antibiotics, have since been reported across around the globe. On January 30, 2020, the zithromax cost at walgreens World Health Organization (WHO) declared the zithromax represents a public health emergency of international concern, and on January 31, 2020, the U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services declared it to be a health emergency for the United States..

About This TrackerThis tracker provides the number of confirmed cases and deaths from novel antibiotics by country, the trend in confirmed case and death counts by country, and a global map showing which countries have confirmed cases and deaths order zithromax z pak. The data are drawn from the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) antibiotics Resource Center’s buy antibiotics Map and the World Health Organization’s (WHO) antibiotics Disease (buy antibiotics-2019) situation reports.This tracker will be updated regularly, as new data are released.Related Content. About buy antibiotics antibioticsIn order zithromax z pak late 2019, a new antibiotics emerged in central China to cause disease in humans. Cases of this disease, known as buy antibiotics, have since been reported across around the globe.

On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the order zithromax z pak zithromax represents a public health emergency of international concern, and on January 31, 2020, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services declared it to be a health emergency for the United States..

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Tell your prescriber or health care professional if your symptoms do not improve in 2 to 3 days. Contact your prescriber or health care professional as soon as you can if you get an allergic reaction to azithromycin, such as rash, itching, difficulty swallowing, or swelling of the face, lips or tongue. Keep out of the sun, or wear protective clothing outdoors and use a sunscreen. Do not use sun lamps or sun tanning beds or booths. If you get severe or watery diarrhea, do not treat yourself. Call your prescriber or health care professional for advice. Antacids can stop azithromycin from working. If you get an upset stomach and want to take an antacid, make sure there is an interval of at least 2 hours since you last took azithromycin, or 4 hours before your next dose. If you are going to have surgery, tell your prescriber or health care professional that you are taking azithromycin.

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We live in unprecedented zithromax gluten free times http://omalandro.com/?page_id=17. But what makes them without parallel is not the current zithromax crisis nor the continued problems facing minorities in our institutions. Rather, it’s that for the zithromax gluten free first time, the problems of accessibility, rights and freedoms are now invading privileged spaces. There can be no ‘getting back to normal’, because ‘normal’ only ever benefited the white, Western, patriarchal, abled and cis ideals.

For many, the world is not zithromax gluten free suddenly on fire. It has long been burning.The present zithromax lays bare systemic prejudice against the most vulnerable among us. We at Medical Humanities, with our focus on global health and social justice, welcome discussion about how the crisis has disproportionately affected racial and fiscal minorities, those from the disabled community, those who are LGBTQA+ and other vulnerable groups. What we focus on here, now, can lead to greater accessibility and equity in the future.In this expanded issue, we offer some of the incredible work being done across the field of medical humanities prior to the buy antibiotics crisis, and we are zithromax gluten free already reviewing articles on the role of health humanities during the zithromax.

The process of academic publishing tends not to lend itself to immediacy, however, and the challenges of zithromax means greater pressure on everyone, from the authors to the reviewers and readers.To remedy this, we at Medical Humanities have been increasing the work on our blog platform, a place where content can be quickly updated, and where conversations can occur among readers and writers. We openly invite submissions concerning the zithromax, as well as topics relevant to our wider CFP (call for posts/papers) this year on social justice and health, to both blog and zithromax gluten free journal. We will do our best to expedite. Finally, we have also been addressing social justice and access in our podcast, where we interviewed disability activist Alice Wong and most recently Dr Oni Blackstock, primary care physician and HIV specialist in New York.

We hope to have many more on these critical subjects.We wish all of you good health and safety and know that many of you are yet zithromax gluten free on the front lines. Thank you for being part of the community of Medical Humanities.IntroductionMinecraft is a computer game with no specific goals to accomplish. The gameworld consists of three-dimensional (3D) cubes zithromax gluten free and objects which the player (Steve) can mine and build into infinitely complex (and logically impossible) structures. Steve sometimes encounters other characters (‘mobs’), such as animals and hostile creatures.

He can ‘spawn’ and destroy them. While it looks like a harmless game of logical construction, it zithromax gluten free conveys some worryingly delusive ideas about the real world. The difference between real and imagined structures is at the heart of the age-old debate around categorising mental disorders.Classification in mental health has had various forms throughout history. Mack and colleagues set out a history zithromax gluten free of psychiatric classification beginning in 2600 BC with Egyptian references to melancholia and hysteria.

Through the Ancient Greeks with Hippocrates’ phrenitis, mania, melancholia, epilepsy, hysteria and Scythian disease. Through the Renaissance period. Through to 19th-century psychiatry featuring Pinel (known as the first psychiatrist), Kraepelin (known for observational classification) and Freud (known for classifying zithromax gluten free neurosis and psychosis).1Although the history of psychiatric classification identifies some common trends such as the labels ‘melancholia’ and ‘hysteria’ which have survived millennia, the label ‘depression’ is relatively new. The earliest usage noted by Snaith is from 1899.

€˜in simple pathological depression…the patient exhibits a growing indifference to his zithromax gluten free former pursuits…’.2 Snaith noted that early 20th-century psychiatrists like Adolf Meyer hoped that ‘depression’ would come to encompass a broad category under which descriptions of subtypes would emerge. This did not happen until the middle of the 20th century. With the publication of the sixth International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in 1948 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in 1952 and their subsequent revisions, the latter half of the 20th century has seen depression subtype labels proliferate. In their study of the social determinants of diagnostic labels in depression, McPherson and Armstrong illustrate how the codification of depression subtypes in the latter half of the 20th century has been shaped by the evolving context of psychiatry, including power struggles within the profession, a move to community care and zithromax gluten free the development of psychopharmacology.3During this period, McPherson and Armstrong describe how subsequent versions of the DSM served as battlegrounds for professional disputes and philosophical quarrels around categorisation of mental disorders.

DSM I and DSM II have been described as products of an American Psychiatric Association dominated by psychoanalytic psychiatrists.4 DSM III and DSM III-R have been described as a radical rejection of psychoanalytic thinking, a ‘neo-Kraepelinian revolution’, a reference to the observational descriptive techniques of 19th-century psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin who classified mental disorders into two broad categories. €˜dementia praecox’ and ‘manic-depression’.5 DSM III was seen by some as a turning point in the use of the medical model zithromax gluten free of mental illness, through provision of specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, and use of field trials and a multiaxial system.6 These latter technocratic additions to psychiatric labelling served to engender a much closer alignment between psychiatry, science and medicine.The codification of mental disorders in manuals has been described by Thomas Schacht as intrinsic to the relationship between science and politics and the way in which psychiatrists gain significant social power by aligning themselves to science.7 His argument drew on Szasz, who saw the mental health establishment as a therapeutic state. Zimbardo, who described psychiatric care as a controlling force. And Foucault, who described the categorisation of the mentally ill as a force for isolating ‘the other’.

Diagnostic critique has been further developed through a cultural relativist lens in that what Western psychiatrists classify as a depression is constructed differently in other cultures.8 zithromax gluten free Considering these limitations, some critics have gone so far as to argue that psychiatric diagnostic systems should be abolished.9Yet architects of DSM manuals have worked hard to ensure the technology of classification is regarded as genuine scientific activity with sound roots in philosophy of science. In their philosophical defence of DSM IV, Allen Frances and colleagues address their critics under the headings ‘nominalism vs realism’, ‘empiricism vs rationalism’ and ‘categorical vs dimensional’.10 The implication is that there are opposing stances in which a choice must be made or a middle ground forged by those reasonable enough to recognise the need for pragmatism in the service of clinical utility. The nominalism–realism debate is illustrated using as metaphor three different stances a cricket umpire zithromax gluten free might take on calling strikes and balls. The discussion sets out two of these as extreme views.

€˜at one extreme…those who take a reductionistically realistic view of the world’ versus ‘the solipsistic nominalists…might content that nothing exists’. Szasz, who is characterised zithromax gluten free as holding particularly extreme views, is named as an archetypal solipsist. There is implied to be a degree of arrogance associated with this view in the illustrative example in which the umpire states ‘there are no balls and there are no strikes until I call them’. Frances therefore sets up a means of grouping two kinds of zithromax gluten free people as philosophical extremists who can be dismissed, while avoiding addressing the philosophical problems they pose.Frances provides little if any justification for the middle ground stance, ‘There are balls and there are strikes and I call them as I see them’, other than to focus on its clinical utility and the lack of clinical utility in the alternatives ‘naïve realism’ and ‘heuristically barren solipsism’.

The natural conclusion the reader is invited to reach is that a middle ground of a heuristic concept is naturally right because it is not extreme and is naturally useful clinically, without specifying in what way this stance is coherent, resolves the two alternatives, and in what way a heuristic construct that is not ‘real’ can be subject to scientific testing.Similarly, in discussing the ‘categorical vs dimensional’, Frances promotes the ‘prototype approach’. Those holding opposing views are labelled as ‘dualists’ or ‘dichotomisers’. The prototypical approach is again zithromax gluten free put forward as a clinically useful middle ground. Illustrations are drawn from natural science.

€˜a triangle zithromax gluten free and a square are never the same’, inciting the reader to consider science as value-free. The prototypical approach emerges as a natural solution, yet the authors do not address how a diagnostic prototype resolves the issues posed by the two alternatives, nor how a prototype can be subjected to natural science methods.The argument presented here is not a defence of solipsism or dualism. Rather it aims to illustrate that if for pragmatic purposes clinicians and policymakers choose to gloss over the philosophical flaws in classification practices, it is then risky to move beyond the heuristic and apply natural science methods to these constructs adding multiple layers of technocratic subclassification. Doing so zithromax gluten free is more like playing Minecraft than cricket.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline for depression is taken as an example of the philosophical errors that can follow from playing Minecraft with unsound heuristic devices, specifically subcategories of persistent forms of depression. As well as serving a clinical purpose, diagnosis in medicine is a way of allocating resources for insurance companies and constructing clinical guidelines, which in turn zithromax gluten free determine rationing within the National Health Service. The consequences for recipients of healthcare are therefore significant. Clinical utility is arguably not being served at all and patients are left at risk of poor-quality care.Heterogeneity of persistent depressionAndrea Jobst and colleagues note that ‘because of their chronic clinical course, approximately 40% of CD [chronic depression] patients also fulfil criteria for TRD [treatment resistant depression]…usually defined by the number of non-successful biological treatments’.11 This position is reflected in the DSM VAmerican Psychiatric Association (2013), the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance and the ICD-11(World Health Organisation, 2018), which all use a ‘persistent’ depression category, acknowledging a loosely defined mixed group of long-term, difficult-to-treat depressive conditions, often associated with dysthymia and comorbid common mental disorders, various personality traits and psychosocial disability.In contrast, the NICE 2018 draft guideline separates treatments into those for ‘new episodes’ of depression.

€˜further-line’ treatment of depression zithromax gluten free (equivalent to TRD), CD and ‘depression with co-morbidities’. The latter is subdivided into treatments for ‘complex depression’ and ‘psychotic depression’. These categories and subcategories introduce an unfortunate sense of certainty as though these labels represent real things zithromax gluten free. An analysis follows of how these definitions play out in terms of grouping of randomised controlled trials in the NICE evidence review.

Specifically, the analysis reveals the overlap between populations in trials which have been separated into discrete categories, revealing significant limitations to the utility of the category labels.The NICE definition of CD requires trial samples to meet the criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) for 2 years. Dysthymia and zithromax gluten free double depression (MDD superimposed on dysthymia) were included. If 75% of the trial population met these criteria, the trial was reviewed in the CD category.12 The definition of TRD (or ‘further-line treatments’) required that the trial sample had demonstrated a ‘limited response to previous treatment’ and randomised to the further-line treatment at this point. If 80% of zithromax gluten free the trial participants met these criteria, it was reviewed in the TRD category.13 Complex depression was defined as ‘depression co-existing with personality disorder’.

To be classed as complex, 51% of trial participants had to have personality disorder (PD).14It is immediately clear from these definitions that there is a potential problem with attempting to categorise trial populations into just one of these categories. These populations are likely to overlap, whether or not a trial protocol sets out to explicitly record all of this information. The analysis below will zithromax gluten free illustrate this using examples from within the NICE review.Cataloguing complexity in trial populationsWithin the category of further-line treatments (TRD), 64 trials were reviewed. Comparisons within these trials were further subcategorised into ‘dose escalation strategies’, ‘augmentation strategies’ and ‘switching strategies’.

In drilling down by way of illustration, this analysis considers the zithromax gluten free 51 trials in the augmentation strategy evidence review. Of these, two were classified by the reviewers as also fulfilling the criteria for CD but were not analysed in the CD category (Study IDs. Fonagy 2015 and Kocsis 200915). About half of the trials (23/51) did not report the mean duration of episode, zithromax gluten free meaning that it is not possible to know what percentage of participants also met the criteria for CD.

Of trials that did report episode duration, 17 reported a mean duration longer than 24 months. While the standard zithromax gluten free deviations varied in size or were unreported, the mean indicates a good likelihood that a significant proportion of the participants across these 51 trials met the criteria for CD.Details of baseline employment, trauma history, suicidality, physical comorbidity, axis I comorbidity and PD (all clinical indicators of complexity, severity and chronicity) were not collated by NICE. For the present analysis, all 51 publications were examined and data compiled concerning clinical complexity in the trial populations. Only 14 of 51 trials report employment data.

Of those that do, unemployment ranges from 12% to 56% across trial zithromax gluten free samples. None of the trials report trauma history. About half of the trials (26/51) excluded people who were considered a zithromax gluten free suicide risk. The others did not.A large proportion of trials (30/51) did not provide any data on axis 1 comorbidity.

Of these, 18 did not exclude any diagnoses, while 12 excluded some (but not all) disorders. The most common diagnoses excluded were psychotic disorders, substance or alcohol abuse, and bipolar disorder (excluded in 26, 25 zithromax gluten free and 23 trials, respectively). Only 7 of 51 trials clearly stated that all axis 1 diagnoses were excluded. This leaves only 13 studies providing any data about comorbidity zithromax gluten free.

Of these, 9 gave partial data on one or two conditions, while 4 reported either the mean number of disorders (range 1.96–2.9) or the percentage of participants (range 68.1–96.7) with any comorbid diagnosis (Nierenberg 2003a, Nierenberg 2006, Watkins 2011a, Town 201715).The majority of trials (46/51) did not report the prevalence of PD. Many stated PD as an exclusion criterion but without defining a threshold for exclusion. For example, PD zithromax gluten free could be excluded if it ‘impacted’ the depression, if it was ‘significant’, ‘severe’ or ‘persistent’. Some excluded certain PDs (such as antisocial or borderline) and not others but without reporting the prevalence of those not excluded.

In the five trials where prevalence was clear, prevalence ranged from 0% (Ravindran 2008a15), where zithromax gluten free all PDs were excluded, to 87.5% of the sample (Town 201715). Two studies reported the mean number of PDs. 2.0 (Nierenberg 2003a) and 0.85 (Watkins 2011a15).The majority of trials (43/51) did not report the prevalence of physical illness. Many stated illness as an exclusion criterion, but the definitions zithromax gluten free and thresholds were vague and could be interpreted in different ways.

For example, illness could be excluded if it was ‘unstable’, ‘serious’, ‘significant’, ‘relevant’, or would ‘contraindicate’ or ‘impact’ try here the medication. Of the eight trials reporting information about physical health, there was zithromax gluten free a wide variation. Four reported prevalence varying from 7.6% having a disability (Eisendrath 201615) to 90.9% having an illness or disability (Town 201715). Four used scales of physical health.

Two indicating mild problems (Nierenberg 2006, Lavretsky 201115) and two indicating moderately high levels of illness (Thase 2007, Fang 201015).The NICE review also divided trial populations into a dichotomy zithromax gluten free of ‘more severe’ and ‘less severe’ on the grounds that this would be a clinically useful classification for general practitioners. NICE applied a bespoke methodology for creating this dichotomy, abandoning validated measure thresholds in order first to generate two ‘homogeneous’ groups to ‘facilitate analysis’, and second to create an algorithm to ‘read across’ different measures (such as the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale).16 Examining trials which use more than one of these measures reveals problems in the algorithm. Of the 51 trials, there are 6 instances in which the study population falls into NICE’s more severe category according zithromax gluten free to one measure and into the less severe category according to another. In four of these trials, NICE chose the less severe category (Souza 2016, Watkins 2011a, Fonagy 2015, Town 201715).

The other two trials were designated more severe (Barbee 2011, Dunner 200715). Only 17 of 51 trials reported two or more depression scale measures, leaving much unknown about whether other study populations could count as both more severe and less severe.Absence of knowledge or knowledge zithromax gluten free of absence?. A key philosophical error in science is to confuse an absence of knowledge with knowledge of absence. It is likely that some of the study populations deemed lacking in complexity or severity could actually have high degrees of complexity and/or zithromax gluten free severity.

Data to demonstrate this may either fall foul of a guideline committee decision to prioritise certain information over other conflicting information (as in the severity algorithm). The information may be non-existent as it was not collected. It may be somewhere zithromax gluten free in the publication pipeline. Or it may be sitting in a database with a research team that has run out of funds for supplementary analyses.

Wherever those data are or are not, their absence from published articles does not define the phenomenology zithromax gluten free of depression for the patients who took part. As a case in point, data from the Fonagy 2015 trial presented at conferences but not published reveal that PD prevalence data would place the trial well within the NICE complex depression category, and that the sample had high levels of past trauma and physical condition comorbidity. The trial also meets the guideline criteria for CD according to the guideline’s own appendices.17 Reported axis 1 comorbidity was high (75.2% had anxiety disorder, 18.6% had substance abuse disorder, 13.2% had eating disorder).18 The mean depression scores at baseline were 36.5 on the Beck Depression Inventory and 20.1 on the HRSD (severe and very severe, respectively, according to published cut-off scores). NICE categorised this population as less severe TRD, zithromax gluten free not CD and not complex.Notes1.

Avram H. Mack et zithromax gluten free al. (1994), “A Brief History of Psychiatric Classification. From the Ancients to DSM-IV,” Psychiatric Clinics 17, no.

Snaith (1987), “The Concepts of Mild Depression,” British Journal of Psychiatry 150, no. 3. 387.3. Susan McPherson and David Armstrong (2006), “Social Determinants of Diagnostic Labels in Depression,” Social Science &.

Grob (1991), “Origins of DSM-I. A Study in Appearance and Reality,” The American Journal of Psychiatry. 421–31.5. Wilson M.

Compton and Samuel B. Guze (1995), “The Neo-Kraepelinian Revolution in Psychiatric Diagnosis,” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 245, no. 4. 198–9.6.

Gerald L. Klerman (1984), “A Debate on DSM-III. The Advantages of DSM-III,” The American Journal of Psychiatry. 539–42.7.

Thomas E. Schacht (1985), “DSM-III and the Politics of Truth,” American Psychologist. 513–5.8. Daniel F.

Hartner and Kari L. Theurer (2018), “Psychiatry Should Not Seek Mechanisms of Disorder,” Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 38, no. 4. 189–204.9.

Sami Timimi (2014), “No More Psychiatric Labels. Why Formal Psychiatric Diagnostic Systems Should Be Abolished,” Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology 14, no. 3. 208–15.10.

Allen Frances et al. (1994), “DSM-IV Meets Philosophy,” The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy. A Forum for Bioethics and Philosophy of Medicine 19, no. 3.

207–18.11. Andrea Jobst et al. (2016), “European Psychiatric Association Guidance on Psychotherapy in Chronic Depression Across Europe,” European Psychiatry 33. 20.12.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2018), Depression in Adults. Treatment and Management. Draft for Consultation, https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/gid-cgwave0725/documents/full-guideline-updated, 507.13. Ibid., 351–62.14.

Ibid., 597.15. Note that in order to refer to specific trials reviewed in the guideline, rather than the full citation, the Study IDs from column A in appendix J5 have been used. See www.nice.org.uk/guidance/gid-cgwave0725/documents/addendum-appendix-9 for details and full references.16. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2018), Depression in Adults.

Treatment and Management. Second Consultation on Draft Guideline – Stakeholder Comments Table, https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/gid-cgwave0725/documents/consultation-comments-and-responses-2, 420–1.17. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2018), Depression in Adults, appendix J5.18. Peter Fonagy et al.

(2015), “Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial of Long-Term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy for Treatment-Resistant Depression. The Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS),” World Psychiatry 14, no. 3. 312–21.19.

American Psychological Association (2018), Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Depression in Children, Adolescents, and Young, Middle-aged, and Older Adults. Draft.20. Jacqui Thornton (2018), “Depression in Adults. Campaigners and Doctors Demand Full Revision of NICE Guidance,” BMJ 361.

We live in http://h2owireless.de/kontakt/ unprecedented order zithromax z pak times. But what makes them without parallel is not the current zithromax crisis nor the continued problems facing minorities in our institutions. Rather, it’s that for the first time, the problems of accessibility, rights and freedoms are now order zithromax z pak invading privileged spaces. There can be no ‘getting back to normal’, because ‘normal’ only ever benefited the white, Western, patriarchal, abled and cis ideals. For many, the order zithromax z pak world is not suddenly on fire.

It has long been burning.The present zithromax lays bare systemic prejudice against the most vulnerable among us. We at Medical Humanities, with our focus on global health and social justice, welcome discussion about how the crisis has disproportionately affected racial and fiscal minorities, those from the disabled community, those who are LGBTQA+ and other vulnerable groups. What we focus on here, now, can lead to greater accessibility and equity in the future.In this order zithromax z pak expanded issue, we offer some of the incredible work being done across the field of medical humanities prior to the buy antibiotics crisis, and we are already reviewing articles on the role of health humanities during the zithromax. The process of academic publishing tends not to lend itself to immediacy, however, and the challenges of zithromax means greater pressure on everyone, from the authors to the reviewers and readers.To remedy this, we at Medical Humanities have been increasing the work on our blog platform, a place where content can be quickly updated, and where conversations can occur among readers and writers. We openly invite submissions concerning the zithromax, as well as topics relevant to our wider CFP (call for posts/papers) this year on social justice and health, to both order zithromax z pak blog and journal.

We will do our best to expedite. Finally, we have also been addressing social justice and access in our podcast, where we interviewed disability activist Alice Wong and most recently Dr Oni Blackstock, primary care physician and HIV specialist in New York. We hope to have many more on these order zithromax z pak critical subjects.We wish all of you good health and safety and know that many of you are yet on the front lines. Thank you for being part of the community of Medical Humanities.IntroductionMinecraft is a computer game with no specific goals to accomplish. The gameworld consists of three-dimensional (3D) cubes and objects which the player (Steve) can mine and build into infinitely complex (and logically impossible) order zithromax z pak structures.

Steve sometimes encounters other characters (‘mobs’), such as animals and hostile creatures. He can ‘spawn’ and destroy them. While it looks like a harmless game of logical construction, it conveys order zithromax z pak some worryingly delusive ideas about the real world. The difference between real and imagined structures is at the heart of the age-old debate around categorising mental disorders.Classification in mental health has had various forms throughout history. Mack and colleagues set out a history of psychiatric order zithromax z pak classification beginning in 2600 BC with Egyptian references to melancholia and hysteria.

Through the Ancient Greeks with Hippocrates’ phrenitis, mania, melancholia, epilepsy, hysteria and Scythian disease. Through the Renaissance period. Through to 19th-century psychiatry featuring order zithromax z pak Pinel (known as the first psychiatrist), Kraepelin (known for observational classification) and Freud (known for classifying neurosis and psychosis).1Although the history of psychiatric classification identifies some common trends such as the labels ‘melancholia’ and ‘hysteria’ which have survived millennia, the label ‘depression’ is relatively new. The earliest usage noted by Snaith is from 1899. €˜in simple pathological depression…the patient exhibits a growing indifference to his former pursuits…’.2 Snaith noted that early 20th-century psychiatrists like Adolf Meyer hoped that ‘depression’ would come to order zithromax z pak encompass a broad category under which descriptions of subtypes would emerge.

This did not happen until the middle of the 20th century. With the publication of the sixth International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in 1948 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in 1952 and their subsequent revisions, the latter half of the 20th century has seen depression subtype labels proliferate. In their study of the social determinants of diagnostic labels in depression, McPherson and Armstrong illustrate how the codification of depression subtypes in the latter half of the 20th century has been shaped by the evolving context of psychiatry, including power struggles within the profession, a move to community order zithromax z pak care and the development of psychopharmacology.3During this period, McPherson and Armstrong describe how subsequent versions of the DSM served as battlegrounds for professional disputes and philosophical quarrels around categorisation of mental disorders. DSM I and DSM II have been described as products of an American Psychiatric Association dominated by psychoanalytic psychiatrists.4 DSM III and DSM III-R have been described as a radical rejection of psychoanalytic thinking, a ‘neo-Kraepelinian revolution’, a reference to the observational descriptive techniques of 19th-century psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin who classified mental disorders into two broad categories. €˜dementia praecox’ and ‘manic-depression’.5 DSM III was seen by some as a turning point in the use of the medical model of mental illness, through provision of specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, and use of field trials and a multiaxial system.6 These latter technocratic additions to psychiatric labelling served to engender a much closer alignment between psychiatry, science and medicine.The codification of mental disorders in manuals has been described by Thomas Schacht as intrinsic to the relationship between science and politics and the way in which psychiatrists gain significant social power by aligning themselves to science.7 His argument drew on Szasz, who saw the mental health establishment as a order zithromax z pak therapeutic state.

Zimbardo, who described psychiatric care as a controlling force. And Foucault, who described the categorisation of the mentally ill as a force for isolating ‘the other’. Diagnostic critique has been further developed through a cultural relativist lens in that what Western psychiatrists classify as a depression is constructed differently in other cultures.8 Considering these limitations, some critics have gone so far as to argue that psychiatric diagnostic systems should be abolished.9Yet architects of DSM manuals have worked hard to ensure the technology of classification is order zithromax z pak regarded as genuine scientific activity with sound roots in philosophy of science. In their philosophical defence of DSM IV, Allen Frances and colleagues address their critics under the headings ‘nominalism vs realism’, ‘empiricism vs rationalism’ and ‘categorical vs dimensional’.10 The implication is that there are opposing stances in which a choice must be made or a middle ground forged by those reasonable enough to recognise the need for pragmatism in the service of clinical utility. The nominalism–realism debate is illustrated using as metaphor three different stances a cricket umpire order zithromax z pak might take on calling strikes and balls.

The discussion sets out two of these as extreme views. €˜at one extreme…those who take a reductionistically realistic view of the world’ versus ‘the solipsistic nominalists…might content that nothing exists’. Szasz, who is characterised order zithromax z pak as holding particularly extreme views, is named as an archetypal solipsist. There is implied to be a degree of arrogance associated with this view in the illustrative example in which the umpire states ‘there are no balls and there are no strikes until I call them’. Frances therefore sets up a means of grouping two kinds of people as philosophical extremists who can be dismissed, while avoiding addressing the philosophical problems they pose.Frances provides little if any justification for the middle ground stance, ‘There are balls and order zithromax z pak there are strikes and I call them as I see them’, other than to focus on its clinical utility and the lack of clinical utility in the alternatives ‘naïve realism’ and ‘heuristically barren solipsism’.

The natural conclusion the reader is invited to reach is that a middle ground of a heuristic concept is naturally right because it is not extreme and is naturally useful clinically, without specifying in what way this stance is coherent, resolves the two alternatives, and in what way a heuristic construct that is not ‘real’ can be subject to scientific testing.Similarly, in discussing the ‘categorical vs dimensional’, Frances promotes the ‘prototype approach’. Those holding opposing views are labelled as ‘dualists’ or ‘dichotomisers’. The prototypical order zithromax z pak approach is again put forward as a clinically useful middle ground. Illustrations are drawn from natural science. €˜a triangle and a square are never the same’, inciting the reader to consider order zithromax z pak science as value-free.

The prototypical approach emerges as a natural solution, yet the authors do not address how a diagnostic prototype resolves the issues posed by the two alternatives, nor how a prototype can be subjected to natural science methods.The argument presented here is not a defence of solipsism or dualism. Rather it aims to illustrate that if for pragmatic purposes clinicians and policymakers choose to gloss over the philosophical flaws in classification practices, it is then risky to move beyond the heuristic and apply natural science methods to these constructs adding multiple layers of technocratic subclassification. Doing so is more like playing order zithromax z pak Minecraft than cricket. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline for depression is taken as an example of the philosophical errors that can follow from playing Minecraft with unsound heuristic devices, specifically subcategories of persistent forms of depression. As well as serving a clinical purpose, diagnosis in medicine is a way of allocating resources order zithromax z pak for insurance companies and constructing clinical guidelines, which in turn determine rationing within the National Health Service.

The consequences for recipients of healthcare are therefore significant. Clinical utility is arguably not being served at all and patients are left at risk of poor-quality care.Heterogeneity of persistent depressionAndrea Jobst and colleagues note that ‘because of their chronic clinical course, approximately 40% of CD [chronic depression] patients also fulfil criteria for TRD [treatment resistant depression]…usually defined by the number of non-successful biological treatments’.11 This position is reflected in the DSM VAmerican Psychiatric Association (2013), the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance and the ICD-11(World Health Organisation, 2018), which all use a ‘persistent’ depression category, acknowledging a loosely defined mixed group of long-term, difficult-to-treat depressive conditions, often associated with dysthymia and comorbid common mental disorders, various personality traits and psychosocial disability.In contrast, the NICE 2018 draft guideline separates treatments into those for ‘new episodes’ of depression. €˜further-line’ treatment of depression (equivalent order zithromax z pak to TRD), CD and ‘depression with co-morbidities’. The latter is subdivided into treatments for ‘complex depression’ and ‘psychotic depression’. These categories and subcategories introduce an unfortunate sense of certainty as though these labels represent real order zithromax z pak things.

An analysis follows of how these definitions play out in terms of grouping of randomised controlled trials in the NICE evidence review. Specifically, the analysis reveals the overlap between populations in trials which have been separated into discrete categories, revealing significant limitations to the utility of the category labels.The NICE definition of CD requires trial samples to meet the criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) for 2 years. Dysthymia and double depression (MDD superimposed on dysthymia) were included order zithromax z pak. If 75% of the trial population met these criteria, the trial was reviewed in the CD category.12 The definition of TRD (or ‘further-line treatments’) required that the trial sample had demonstrated a ‘limited response to previous treatment’ and randomised to the further-line treatment at this point. If 80% of the trial participants met these criteria, it was reviewed in the TRD category.13 Complex depression was defined as ‘depression co-existing order zithromax z pak with personality disorder’.

To be classed as complex, 51% of trial participants had to have personality disorder (PD).14It is immediately clear from these definitions that there is a potential problem with attempting to categorise trial populations into just one of these categories. These populations are likely to overlap, whether or not a trial protocol sets out to explicitly record all of this information. The analysis below will illustrate this using examples from within the NICE review.Cataloguing complexity in trial populationsWithin the category of further-line treatments (TRD), 64 trials were order zithromax z pak reviewed. Comparisons within these trials were further subcategorised into ‘dose escalation strategies’, ‘augmentation strategies’ and ‘switching strategies’. In drilling down by way of illustration, this analysis considers the order zithromax z pak 51 trials in the augmentation strategy evidence review.

Of these, two were classified by the reviewers as also fulfilling the criteria for CD but were not analysed in the CD category (Study IDs. Fonagy 2015 and Kocsis 200915). About half of the trials (23/51) did not report the mean duration of episode, meaning that it is not possible to know what percentage of participants also met the criteria order zithromax z pak for CD. Of trials that did report episode duration, 17 reported a mean duration longer than 24 months. While the standard deviations varied in size or order zithromax z pak were unreported, the mean indicates a good likelihood that a significant proportion of the participants across these 51 trials met the criteria for CD.Details of baseline employment, trauma history, suicidality, physical comorbidity, axis I comorbidity and PD (all clinical indicators of complexity, severity and chronicity) were not collated by NICE.

For the present analysis, all 51 publications were examined and data compiled concerning clinical complexity in the trial populations. Only 14 of 51 trials report employment data. Of those that do, unemployment ranges from order zithromax z pak 12% to 56% across trial samples. None of the trials report trauma history. About half of the trials (26/51) excluded people who were considered order zithromax z pak a suicide risk.

The others did not.A large proportion of trials (30/51) did not provide any data on axis 1 comorbidity. Of these, 18 did not exclude any diagnoses, while 12 excluded some (but not all) disorders. The most common diagnoses excluded were order zithromax z pak psychotic disorders, substance or alcohol abuse, and bipolar disorder (excluded in 26, 25 and 23 trials, respectively). Only 7 of 51 trials clearly stated that all axis 1 diagnoses were excluded. This leaves only 13 studies order zithromax z pak providing any data about comorbidity.

Of these, 9 gave partial data on one or two conditions, while 4 reported either the mean number of disorders (range 1.96–2.9) or the percentage of participants (range 68.1–96.7) with any comorbid diagnosis (Nierenberg 2003a, Nierenberg 2006, Watkins 2011a, Town 201715).The majority of trials (46/51) did not report the prevalence of PD. Many stated PD as an exclusion criterion but without defining a threshold for exclusion. For example, PD could be excluded if it order zithromax z pak ‘impacted’ the depression, if it was ‘significant’, ‘severe’ or ‘persistent’. Some excluded certain PDs (such as antisocial or borderline) and not others but without reporting the prevalence of those not excluded. In the five trials where prevalence was clear, prevalence ranged from 0% (Ravindran order zithromax z pak 2008a15), where all PDs were excluded, to 87.5% of the sample (Town 201715).

Two studies reported the mean number of PDs. 2.0 (Nierenberg 2003a) and 0.85 (Watkins 2011a15).The majority of trials (43/51) did not report the prevalence of physical illness. Many stated illness as an exclusion criterion, but the definitions and thresholds were vague and order zithromax z pak could be interpreted in different ways. For example, illness could be excluded if it was ‘unstable’, ‘serious’, ‘significant’, ‘relevant’, or would ‘contraindicate’ or ‘impact’ the medication. Of the eight trials reporting order zithromax z pak information about physical health, there was a wide variation.

Four reported prevalence varying from 7.6% having a disability (Eisendrath 201615) to 90.9% having an illness or disability (Town 201715). Four used scales of physical health. Two indicating order zithromax z pak mild problems (Nierenberg 2006, Lavretsky 201115) and two indicating moderately high levels of illness (Thase 2007, Fang 201015).The NICE review also divided trial populations into a dichotomy of ‘more severe’ and ‘less severe’ on the grounds that this would be a clinically useful classification for general practitioners. NICE applied a bespoke methodology for creating this dichotomy, abandoning validated measure thresholds in order first to generate two ‘homogeneous’ groups to ‘facilitate analysis’, and second to create an algorithm to ‘read across’ different measures (such as the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale).16 Examining trials which use more than one of these measures reveals problems in the algorithm. Of the 51 trials, there are 6 instances in which the study population falls into NICE’s more severe category according to one measure and order zithromax z pak into the less severe category according to another.

In four of these trials, NICE chose the less severe category (Souza 2016, Watkins 2011a, Fonagy 2015, Town 201715). The other two trials were designated more severe (Barbee 2011, Dunner 200715). Only 17 of 51 trials reported two or more depression scale measures, leaving much unknown about whether other study populations could count as both more severe and order zithromax z pak less severe.Absence of knowledge or knowledge of absence?. A key philosophical error in science is to confuse an absence of knowledge with knowledge of absence. It is likely that some of the study populations deemed lacking order zithromax z pak in complexity or severity could actually have high degrees of complexity and/or severity.

Data to demonstrate this may either fall foul of a guideline committee decision to prioritise certain information over other conflicting information (as in the severity algorithm). The information may be non-existent as it was not collected. It may be somewhere in order zithromax z pak the publication pipeline. Or it may be sitting in a database with a research team that has run out of funds for supplementary analyses. Wherever those data are or are not, their absence order zithromax z pak from published articles does not define the phenomenology of depression for the patients who took part.

As a case in point, data from the Fonagy 2015 trial presented at conferences but not published reveal that PD prevalence data would place the trial well within the NICE complex depression category, and that the sample had high levels of past trauma and physical condition comorbidity. The trial also meets the guideline criteria for CD according to the guideline’s own appendices.17 Reported axis 1 comorbidity was high (75.2% had anxiety disorder, 18.6% had substance abuse disorder, 13.2% had eating disorder).18 The mean depression scores at baseline were 36.5 on the Beck Depression Inventory and 20.1 on the HRSD (severe and very severe, respectively, according to published cut-off scores). NICE categorised order zithromax z pak this population as less severe TRD, not CD and not complex.Notes1. Avram H. Mack et al order zithromax z pak.

(1994), “A Brief History of Psychiatric Classification. From the Ancients to DSM-IV,” Psychiatric Clinics 17, no. 3. 515–9.2. R.

P. Snaith (1987), “The Concepts of Mild Depression,” British Journal of Psychiatry 150, no. 3. 387.3. Susan McPherson and David Armstrong (2006), “Social Determinants of Diagnostic Labels in Depression,” Social Science &.

Medicine 62, no. 1. 52–7.4. Gerald N. Grob (1991), “Origins of DSM-I.

A Study in Appearance and Reality,” The American Journal of Psychiatry. 421–31.5. Wilson M. Compton and Samuel B. Guze (1995), “The Neo-Kraepelinian Revolution in Psychiatric Diagnosis,” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 245, no.

4. 198–9.6. Gerald L. Klerman (1984), “A Debate on DSM-III. The Advantages of DSM-III,” The American Journal of Psychiatry.

539–42.7. Thomas E. Schacht (1985), “DSM-III and the Politics of Truth,” American Psychologist. 513–5.8. Daniel F.

Hartner and Kari L. Theurer (2018), “Psychiatry Should Not Seek Mechanisms of Disorder,” Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 38, no. 4. 189–204.9. Sami Timimi (2014), “No More Psychiatric Labels.

Why Formal Psychiatric Diagnostic Systems Should Be Abolished,” Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology 14, no. 3. 208–15.10. Allen Frances et al. (1994), “DSM-IV Meets Philosophy,” The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy.

A Forum for Bioethics and Philosophy of Medicine 19, no. 3. 207–18.11. Andrea Jobst et al. (2016), “European Psychiatric Association Guidance on Psychotherapy in Chronic Depression Across Europe,” European Psychiatry 33.

20.12. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2018), Depression in Adults. Treatment and Management. Draft for Consultation, https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/gid-cgwave0725/documents/full-guideline-updated, 507.13. Ibid., 351–62.14.

Ibid., 597.15. Note that in order to refer to specific trials reviewed in the guideline, rather than the full citation, the Study IDs from column A in appendix J5 have been used. See www.nice.org.uk/guidance/gid-cgwave0725/documents/addendum-appendix-9 for details and full references.16. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2018), Depression in Adults. Treatment and Management.

Second Consultation on Draft Guideline – Stakeholder Comments Table, https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/gid-cgwave0725/documents/consultation-comments-and-responses-2, 420–1.17. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2018), Depression in Adults, appendix J5.18. Peter Fonagy et al. (2015), “Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial of Long-Term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy for Treatment-Resistant Depression. The Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS),” World Psychiatry 14, no.

3. 312–21.19. American Psychological Association (2018), Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Depression in Children, Adolescents, and Young, Middle-aged, and Older Adults. Draft.20. Jacqui Thornton (2018), “Depression in Adults.

Campaigners and Doctors Demand Full Revision of NICE Guidance,” BMJ 361. K2681..

Is zithromax used for sinus s

U&E, LFTs etc) is zithromax used for sinus s Purple zithromax buy cheap top – EDTA (e.g. FBC, HbA1c) Alternative products are being sought to alleviate these constraints. And all labs that will be switching to these supplies have received samples for testing and validation.

However, it will take time for these products is zithromax used for sinus s to be imported and delivered in volume to services. It is important and urgent that demand is reduced as much as possible and that this letter is acted upon immediately. There is also significant pressure on a number of similar products.

Organisations are asked not to is zithromax used for sinus s switch to alternative products unless doing so in coordination with the Pathology Incident Director and NHS Supply Chain. The following measures should be applied across the NHS in England. All primary care and community testing must be halted until 17 September 2021, except for clinically urgent testing.

Examples of is zithromax used for sinus s clinically urgent testing include. Bloods that are required to facilitate a two week wait referral Bloods that are extremely overdue and/or essential for safe prescribing of medication or monitoring of condition Bloods that if taken could avoid a hospital admission or prevent an onward referral Those with suspected sepsis or conditions with a risk of death or disability Resources DHSC &. NHS England and Improvement.

Supply disruption alert NHS England Blood Tube Supply is zithromax used for sinus s Disruption Alert 26 August 2021 20 August 2021 - updated to include NHS Scotland guidance documents With the news of the global supply disruption to Becton Dickinson Blood Specimen Collection Portfolio, NHS England has issued recommended actions for medical directors, nursing directors, GPs and pathology laboratories to optimise resources for pathology laboratory work. The recommendations have been developed by clinical experts from pathology teams, primary care and acute care, including input from the IBMS, Royal College of Pathologists (RCPath), the Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine (ACB), Genomics Implementation Unit (NHSE) and the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges (AoMRC). David Wells, IBMS chief executive said.

http://basementgold.com/?page_id=3 "Our members are involved in performing over 1bn tests a year in the UK and hundreds of is zithromax used for sinus s million blood tubes are used for several thousand different blood tests. Whilst this could have serious ramifications, we urge our members to follow the guidance set out in this document should issues arise from any supply disruptions." Information for the devolved nations will be published when received and this news story will be updated. Resources NHS England NHS Optimisation of resources for pathology laboratory work NHSE steps up action on blood test tube shortage - HSJ (subscription required), 10 August 2021 Blood Bottles Action Log Aug 2021 - Jill Beech (Pathology Services Manager) and Milton Keynes University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust NHS Scotland NHS Scotland Guidance - Recommended actions to optimise diagnostic testing during blood tube shortages URGENT Supply Disruption of BD Vacutainer Blood Specimen Collection Tubes NHS Wales NHS Wales Urgent - Final Letter to Primary Care re BD Blood Bottle Shortage26 August 2021 Congratulations to all recipients of the 2022 Mary Macdonald Bursary Established in 2019, the IBMS Mary Macdonald Congress Award sponsors free places for non-HCPC registered members to attend the Biomedical Support Staff programme at IBMS Congress.

Successful applicants also receive £60.00 towards travelling expenses is zithromax used for sinus s. Mary is remembered as an outstanding professional, colleague and mentor, who began her career as a laboratory support worker and was keen to encourage and recognise excellence in others working in similar roles. Mary made a significant contribution to the IBMS throughout her life, serving as an IBMS Council member and on a number of IBMS Committees.

The winners for 2022 is zithromax used for sinus s are. Nicola Dunn Vanimira Dzhugdanova Amy Pateman Lloyd Mcleggon-Watkinson Emily Newell Victoria Mercer Sudipta Bhattacharjee Daniel Gibbon Karen Tonge Comments from our winning applicants. I am delighted to be awarded the Bursary to attend Congress.

I am excited and looking forward to the opportunity of meeting other Biomedical support workers and is zithromax used for sinus s gaining new knowledge. I feel achieving this award alongside undertaking the certificate of Achievement part II will allow me to professionally develop and as a team here at the Countess of Chester Hospital I feel we will all benefit from this. Nicola Dunn I have spent almost my entire career working in pathology and I recently gained my COA Part 2.

Winning this bursary is recognition of the professional achievement is zithromax used for sinus s that is possible for support staff and acknowledges the contribution we make to lab services. Emily Newell I am happy to receive the bursary from IBMS to attend Congress. Having completed my Part 2 , I am looking forward to experience the day for my own development and look forward to sharing with colleagues at Bolton Hospital.

While it is anticipated that the position will improve from the middle of September, overall supply is likely order zithromax z pak to remain challenging for a significant period. The tubes impacted by this shortage are. 5mls Yellow top – SST 2 – clotted sample (e.g. U&E, LFTs etc) Purple order zithromax z pak top – EDTA (e.g. FBC, HbA1c) Alternative products are being sought to alleviate these constraints.

And all labs that will be switching to these supplies have received samples for testing and validation. However, it will take time order zithromax z pak for these products to be imported and delivered in volume to services. It is important and urgent that demand is reduced as much as possible and that this letter is acted upon immediately. There is also significant pressure on a number of similar products. Organisations are order zithromax z pak asked not to switch to alternative products unless doing so in coordination with the Pathology Incident Director and NHS Supply Chain.

The following measures should be applied across the NHS in England. All primary care and community testing must be halted until 17 September 2021, except for clinically urgent testing. Examples of order zithromax z pak clinically urgent testing include. Bloods that are required to facilitate a two week wait referral Bloods that are extremely overdue and/or essential for safe prescribing of medication or monitoring of condition Bloods that if taken could avoid a hospital admission or prevent an onward referral Those with suspected sepsis or conditions with a risk of death or disability Resources DHSC &. NHS England and Improvement.

Supply disruption alert NHS England Blood Tube Supply Disruption Alert 26 August 2021 20 August 2021 - updated to include NHS Scotland guidance documents With the news of the global supply disruption to Becton Dickinson Blood Specimen Collection Portfolio, NHS England has issued recommended actions for medical directors, nursing directors, GPs and pathology order zithromax z pak laboratories to optimise resources for pathology laboratory work. The recommendations have been developed by clinical experts from pathology teams, primary care and acute care, including input from the IBMS, Royal College of Pathologists (RCPath), the Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine (ACB), Genomics Implementation Unit (NHSE) and the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges (AoMRC). David Wells, IBMS chief executive said. "Our members are involved in performing over 1bn tests order zithromax z pak a year in the UK and hundreds of million blood tubes are used for several thousand different blood tests. Whilst this could have serious ramifications, we urge our members to follow the guidance set out in this document should issues arise from any supply disruptions." Information for the devolved nations will be published when received and this news story will be updated.

Resources NHS England NHS Optimisation of resources for pathology laboratory work NHSE steps up action on blood test tube shortage - HSJ (subscription required), 10 August 2021 Blood Bottles Action Log Aug 2021 - Jill Beech (Pathology Services Manager) and Milton Keynes University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust NHS Scotland NHS Scotland Guidance - Recommended actions to optimise diagnostic testing during blood tube shortages URGENT Supply Disruption of BD Vacutainer Blood Specimen Collection Tubes NHS Wales NHS Wales Urgent - Final Letter to Primary Care re BD Blood Bottle Shortage26 August 2021 Congratulations to all recipients of the 2022 Mary Macdonald Bursary Established in 2019, the IBMS Mary Macdonald Congress Award sponsors free places for non-HCPC registered members to attend the Biomedical Support Staff programme at IBMS Congress. Successful applicants also receive order zithromax z pak £60.00 towards travelling expenses. Mary is remembered as an outstanding professional, colleague and mentor, who began her career as a laboratory support worker and was keen to encourage and recognise excellence in others working in similar roles. Mary made a significant contribution to the IBMS throughout her life, serving as an IBMS Council member and on a number of IBMS Committees. The winners for 2022 are order zithromax z pak.

Nicola Dunn Vanimira Dzhugdanova Amy Pateman Lloyd Mcleggon-Watkinson Emily Newell Victoria Mercer Sudipta Bhattacharjee Daniel Gibbon Karen Tonge Comments from our winning applicants. I am delighted to be awarded the Bursary to attend Congress. I am excited and looking forward to the opportunity of meeting other Biomedical support workers order zithromax z pak and gaining new knowledge. I feel achieving this award alongside undertaking the certificate of Achievement part II will allow me to professionally develop and as a team here at the Countess of Chester Hospital I feel we will all benefit from this. Nicola Dunn I have spent almost my entire career working in pathology and I recently gained my COA Part 2.

Winning this bursary is recognition of the professional achievement that is possible for support staff and acknowledges the contribution we make to lab services.

.